Pediatric Simulator

SUMMARY: An issue that complicates training in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is that there may be no one-to-one correlation between the visual feedback provided on a screen and the movement required to perform the given task. In this work, we examined the conflict typically faced by surgeons in MIS procedures and assessed the feasibility of a simulation designed to train surgeons in resolving visio-motor conflicts experienced in such environments.

METHODS: We developed a virtual reality visio-haptic simulator for suturing, a typical MIS procedure. The simulation offered individuals the flexibility to train in scenarios with different levels of visio-motor conflicts. The levels of conflict were simulated by creating a linear functional relation between movement in the real environment and the virtual environment. Experiments were conducted with expert pediatric surgeons and general surgery residents. Baseline data on performance in conditions of visio-motor conflict were assimilated from expert surgeons.

CONCLUSIONS: Residents were divided into an experimental group (exposed to visio-motor conflict) and a control group (not exposed to conflict training). When the performance was compared on a standard surgical suturing task, the residents with inter-modal conflict training performed better than the control group suggesting the construct validity of the training and that visio-motor training can accelerate learning.

ROLE: Researcher, Application Developer

STATUS: Completed (2009)



  • [JOURNAL ARTICLE] Hamilton J, Kahol K, Vankipuram M, Ashby A, Notrica D, Ferrara J, “Toward Effective Pediatric Minimally Invasive Surgical Simulation”, J Pediatric Surgery, (2011); 46(1): 138-44. [Download PDF]
  • [CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS] Vankipuram M, Kahol K, Ashby A, Hamilton J, Ferrara J, Smith M, “Virtual Reality Based Training to Resolve Visio-motor Conflicts in Surgical Environments”, Haptic, Audio, Visual Environments and Games (HAVE), (2008); 7–12. [Download PDF]
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